19 February 2016
Love sells: the economics of Valentine’s Day
The 14th of February is a day feared by both singles and lovebirds. For singles, it’s simply a confirmation of their loveless existence. For couples, it is very stressful, as Valentine’s Day is, to some, the day of the year to decide whether your love is meant to be. However, except for a day to celebrate love, Valentine’s Day is often criticised as a holiday that has become very commercial. According to a survey by the National Retail Foundation, 55% of Americans planned to celebrate Valentine’s Day, and on average to spend $142.46 on it. What causes people to spend such a large amount of money on Valentine’s Day?
A lot of the fuzz around Valentine’s Day has to do with the pressure: does the other person like me or not? Valentine’s Day is the opportunity to show your partner how committed you are to the relationship. According to a survey by Discover, 75% of the people told their partner they did not bother with a gift, 47% would still be presently surprised to receive a gift. Therefore, the market of Valentine’s Day could also be explained as a game in which information asymmetry exists. Both partners could decide to buy a present, which shows their commitment, but does come at high costs. Optimally, neither of them buys a present. This shows that a gift on Valentine’s Day is not a necessity to show commitment in a relationship.
However, this outcome will probably not occur, as the risks are high. If only one person of the couple decides to buy a gift, it’s just plain awkward. Furthermore, the opportunity costs of this outcome are high. It can take months for a person to convince their loved one that he or she really cares about the relationship, which is more effort than this one time investment. Thus, the Market of Valentine has a high rate of uncertainty due to the asymmetric information about the other person’s preferences and romantic intentions. Therefore, consumers tend to go for the safe option of buying their loved ones a gift and show their commitment, but this does come at costs.
Namely, this causes large price inflation for goods on Valentine’s Day. Roses cost 30-50% more. Not only do the prices rise due to high demand, it is also a matter of elasticity. About half of the consumers spend their money on chocolate, and 38% is spend their money on flowers. Luxury goods like these are usually very elastic throughout the year. However, most significant others do not want to risk their relationship, making these goods a “necessity”.** The collective change in preferences for this date makes the goods more inelastic towards the 14th. Companies know this, and change their prices accordingly.
Bottom Line Don't feel miserable as you lay on the couch watching Netflix with your friends Ben & Jerry. Enjoy all the expenses you have saved by avoiding a game that often does not lead to an optimal outcome.
* Please comment on these posts from my microeconomics students, to help them with unclear analysis, other perspectives, data sources, etc.
** DZ adds: More on what men and women expect... and give.