24 Nov 2014
Transvestite fish and male infertility
Superstition and misleading information regarding the Pill is abundant both from the obvious Catholic adversaries and extremist websites, but also in women’s magazines and protective parental blogs. “The Pill is a sensitive issue for many reasons” (My Girlfriend, 2014), and strong accusations against it including the risk of blood clogs, feminization of fish and male infertility only exacerbates this. To some extent such accusations do not come out of nowhere, but there is no clear evidence that the pill is the sole responsible factor. At best it is a contributor amongst many. However, this does not necessarily mean that the pill does not cause any environmental problems, only that we need to remain realistic regarding what we know and what we don’t.
EDC 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a main component in female hormonal contraception. EE2 has been linked to for instance the feminization of fish, and has been found in damaging concentrations in freshwater American streams. Still, it remains unclear how large a responsibility can be ascribed to EE2 compared to other endocrine disruptors. A 2009 study found that feminization of fish could best be statistically explained by the presence of estrogen together with anti-androgens (used in for instance the treatment of cancers) or by anti-androgens alone.
Still, regardless of how large concentrations are in a given area, it has to be admitted that artificial estrogen, like other EDCs, can have severe adverse effects to animals and young humans. Therefore, a general solution should be found to limit the presence of EDCs, found in a variety of products, in waterways and the air. Another idea is to improve general water sanitation. This is difficult in places that do not have water sanitation already but it might be a possibility in places such as Europe or The US. In order to fund such a sanitation program, it might be possible to estimate the concentrations of the different EDCs in the water sources, and ascribe a fitting sanitation tax to the products, either at a consumer or producer level. We could also consider alternative contraceptives, for both males, females (and all in between).
Bottom Line: EDCs are a problem for the environment and we need a solution. Since birth control pills do contain EDCs, they should be considered as part of the discussion of how to mitigate adverse effects. As a man it seems almost hypocritical to ask women to use an alternative, since the idea of a temporary vasectomy or using the potential ‘male’ pill, does not sound particularly tempting to me. Still, surely there is a solution to this problem, but whether it should be found in alternative contraception methods or in better sanitation, begs the question. What do you think?
* Please comment on these posts from my environmental economics students, to help them with unclear analysis, other perspectives, data sources, etc.