But what about the entrepreneurs who want to change the ways that things are done? How is it possible to bring process innovation or institutional change to the water sector and still make a profit?
Since I consider myself one of these people, I think about this question all the time, and I have identified several problems with this type of entrepreneurial activity:
- Ideas are hard to control for long enough to get paid. OTOH, it's much harder for people to go from "that's a good idea!" to implementing it.
- People who work in water are VERY conservative. I say "Hey, you're on fire. Want me to put it out?" and they reply "Naaahhh, I'm used to it..." (When you're a monopolist, failure may not matter.)
- Institutions are tricky. Push in one place, and something pops out in a different place. Since they are too complicated for one-size-fits-all solutions, innovation requires patience, which is expensive.
- Entrepreneurial people tend to be dynamic; water tends to be static. This mismatch means that few entrepreneurs are willing to hang around in water. (I have internal deadlines for progress. If I miss them, I have other plans.)
- It's hard to create a market where none has existed before. The "revolutionary" ipod merely updated the walkman, which merely shrank the radio to portable. Water markets are revolutionary by several orders of magnitude.
I have not gotten very far with my "raise prices" idea. Even though higher prices would end shortages in days and for very little money, water managers prefer to spend years and $ billions on "supply side" solutions.
Oh, and here's the worst part. Any entrepreneur who "fixes" things will make very little money for the $ billions they save the public -- that's because people in the water sector have no culture of rewarding good ideas; they just pass savings onto customers. Such "non-profit" thinking does not incentivize hard work!
Consider all of these factors at once and you can see why there's more innovation in one percent of the water business (bottled water) than the other 99 percent!
Bottom Line: People love to make things better, but they will not try to improve things unless they receive intrinsic (praise and pride) and extrinsic (money) rewards. The water sector has very little innovation because these rewards are so low powered.